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lambda_scheme

Lambda scheme

This is article on new scheme of database access.

Todays approach to database access in Mixxx

There are lots of objects which need to use database access. Most of that type of access is provided by respective *DAO (DAO means data access object) objects. Instances of each *DAO object consist in TrackCollection class. TrackCollection holds also database connection and populates it on all DAOs.

In Mixxx 1.11 if you want to conduct database access you must:

  1. Get pointer to respective DAO
  2. Prepare query and data
  3. Apply query (synchronously in main thread)
  4. Populate table models from query results (if it's necessary)

The main problem of such scheme is conducting the db access mostly from the Main thread. That's why while query's pending we face UI freezing.

The main requirement is avoid hanging of UI (or minimize hanging up to 16 ms given by the display refresh rate, but not more).

There are lots of inherited complexity in the db usage:

  1. Threads are evil =)
  2. The db connections can be used only in that thread where it was created
  3. We must have just one access point to db in perfect case

We propose new scheme of the db accessing. This scheme requires usage of lambdas which was presented in new C++11.

Thanks to the introduction of Lambdas into C++11 it is much easier to write RPC, so we can avoid callbacks or using signal-slots (as it need us to write lots of overhead). Lambdas (in our case) is alternative to callbacks. But, as for me (and you can see at small example here https://github.com/troyane/lambdaConcurrent) lambdas syntax is little bit unusual, but very clear and much shorter then other ones.

Lambda also can behaves as closure (closure unlike a plain function pointer allows a function to access those non-local variables even when invoked outside of its immediate lexical scope).

We move execution of lambda to separate thread.

Without chaining the Mixxx 1.11 business logic too much we got ability to provide database access in separate thread. As it was required.

Scheme in few words

We are going to keep all DAO class hierarchy and keep behaviour mostly the same, except one important moment – conduct all database access in dedicated database thread.

Object TrackCollection becomes our separate thread. It is creating in Library, also connects to database, holds this connection, initializes all DAO objects and begins its own “event loop” (while cycle in run() method where thread waits for incoming lambdas containing db queries).

We got into cycle body every time someone places lambda to queue by calling callAsync()/callSync. Here we dequeue lambda and execute it (in TrackCollections thread).

What do I need to do with some code to apply new scheme?

  1. Get pointer to TrackCollections thread
  2. Surround your code by respective call of callAsync/callSync where the first parameter will be lambda with its catched values (most common – this).
  3. Be sure all used this member variables are used in a thread save way. We must rely on fact that object will be still alive when lambda'll execute in separate thread.

It guarantees your code will be placed into queue and executed as soon as possible in TrackCollections thread. Must admit that callAsync is asynchronous function. It means that all operations on placing lambda into queue happen in less than 16 ms and execution from your context goes on. We can't say exactly when lambda will be executed (as soon as it is placed to queue and becomes at the top of queue).

Locking UI

Here is sarcastic comics on theme of locking – http://dottech.org/93827/how-many-people-madly-click-their-mouse-when-a-program-freezes-comic/

There is no sense to queue lot of identical queries, so we must not lock all UI, but just lock ability to do some other queries (so, lock just left sidebar and library for example).

For this purposes we created new binary control [Playlist] “isBusy” with range (0.0f — off, else on). And it makes library widget grey (enabled==false).

So, we can use this CO this way: m_pCOTPlaylistIsBusy = new ControlObjectThread(ConfigKey(“[Playlist]”, “isBusy”));. And we are locking/unlocking UI through this CO from TrackCollections thread.

Some moments of lambda usage

If you need to access UI from lambda

Not Asynchronous, but synchronous

This can be uses safely during construction time of Mixxx but should be avoided in run time.

If you can't move on until code in lambda executes. For example, when you need results of some query in initialization of your class. Do it with callSync.

Completing this instruction, we do as it was previously, but with pause of further execution until respective lambda will be executed and respective mutex will be unlocked. Beware your lambda must wait whole lambda queue.

Lambdas queue upper bound

There is the upper bound for lambda queue (MAX_LAMBDA_COUNT). Someone someday could wait in callAsync if there is no empty positions in lambdas queue.

In this case this debug message: “…” will be printed to the mixxx.log file.

Dia

All of written above can be described by next sequence diagram

NOTE: Here is mistake – we use Qt::QueuedConnection (or MainExecuter) instead of Qt::BlockingQueuedConnection.

Long transactions

Example of “long” transaction is LibraryScanner.

We already have working scheme on pausing library scanner (here we can make pause by clicking “pause” button in respective LibraryScannerDlg).

Main idea is to use same interface for accessing database – callSync.

Here uses cashing system – we collect 50 tracks and wrap into one transaction. While that transaction is pending, user can be able to interact with Mixxx UI, for example, create playlists (even without need to click “pause” button).

Idea of usage scheme based on chunks

LibraryScanner runs in separate thred.

We already have callSync function, which calls synchronously. Also there is mechanism that controls weather we are in Main thread or in other thread. In case of other thread we just sleep (sleep thread in background).

So, new API for long transaction expects possibility to divide all database access into several chunks and send it one by one and wait until it executes.

This synchronous scheme gives us great programming experience – we avoid need of thread synchronization (and lot of inherited overhead codding). Every thread just do callSync with adequate (I mean, not so big, and not so small) transaction. Our scheme will be workable on lots of parallel working threads, and user input will be smooth as well.

All bad moments of this scheme is in that fact that LibraryScanner (or other “long” transactions) will cost more time and that in general case – since we need to open lot of transactions. (But we are talking about operations in separate thread, so it can take its time).

If it would be very important - we can rewrite scheme further. But as I feel, now this is best solution – chopped transactions.

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lambda_scheme.txt · Last modified: 2013/09/22 05:21 by troyane